> Henan Province

Henan Province

Population: 95.6 million

Urban population: 23.2 million

Nationalities:Han (98.8%), Hui (1%), Mongolian (0.1%) and Manchu (0.1%)

GDP (2007): CNY1.51 trillion

Climatic features: spans the warm-temperate/semi-humid and subtropical/humid climates; dry, windy winters and springs; hot, rainy summers; strong sunlight in autumn

Local Weather: Click for Zhengzhou, Henan Forecast

Average temperature: -3oC to 3oC in January, 24oC to 29oC in July.

Annual average rainfall:

500 - 900 mm; high precipitation in the southern and northern mountains; 50 percent of the rain falls during the summer.

Physical features:

Generally plains cover the east and mountains, the west; part of the Yangtze River Basin lies in the southwest.


Funiu, Waifang, Xiong'er, Xiaoshan Mountains in the west, which are extensions of the Qinling Range; southern foot of the Taihang Range in the north; Tongbai and Dabie Mountains in the south.

Rivers: Yellow and Huaihe Rivers.


Wheat, millet, sorghum, corn, rice, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, sesame, soybeans, sugar cane, rape, edible fungus; cotton, ambary hemp, tussah ; flue-cured tobacco, oriental oak; apples, peaches, grapes, walnuts, gingko, persimmons; coal, bauxite, mica, nickel.

Specialties: Lingbao dates, Huaiyang day lily, Huanghe common carp.

Administrative divisions: 18 cities and 111 counties.

Capital: Zhengzhou

Neighboring areas: Shandong, Anhui, Hubei, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei Provinces.

Major cities: Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Kaifeng, Pingdingshan, Xinxiang, Anyang, Nanyang

Tourist attractions: Shaolin Temple, at the foot of Mount Songshan, one of the Five Mountains in eastern China; Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang.

Elevation extremes: Henan Province is in the transitional area between the second and third steps of China's four-step terrain rising from east to west, with rolling mountains over 1,000 meters above sea level in its western part and plain area of 100 meters or lower in its east. Laoyacha in Lingbao City, 2413.8 meters above sea level, is the highest peak in Henan. The province's lowest point, 23.2 meters, is found at the place where the Huaihe River leaves the province.

High in the west and low in the east, even in the north and concave in the south, Henan is surrounded by four mountain ranges, the Taihang, Funiu, Tongbai and Dabie, which stand in its north, west and south, leaving subsidence basins here and there. In its middle and eastern parts there is a vast fluvial plain created by the Yellow, Huaihe and Haihe rivers. Mountainous regions comprise 44.3% of its total area, and the plains, 55.7%. Four rivers run across Henan, the Yellow River, Huaihe River, Weihe River and Hanshui River, with the Huaihe River valley covering up 53% of the province.


Located between the northern sub-tropical zone and warm temperate zone, Henan has distinctive four seasons with complicated weather conditions characterized with a hot and rainy summer. Southern Henan is in the northern sub-tropical zone. The province's average temperature of the year is 13~15íŠ; the average annual rainfall is 807 mm; and its frost-free period lasts 308~275 days.

Natural resources:

In 2005, Henan had water reserves of 40.6 billion cubic meters, about 410 cubic meters per capita. The average annual precipitation stood at 797.7 mm. The key water-conservative project at Xiaolangdi on the Yellow River, built with a loan from the World Bank, has a total installed capacity of 1.8 million kw.

Of the more than 150 kinds of minerals found on earth, 126 are available in Henan, of which, the reserves of 74 kinds have been made clear; 61 kinds have been mined and utilized.

With considerable reserves of petroleum and natural gas, Henan possesses Zhongyuan Oil Fields and Henan Oil Fields. It is the 5th largest petroleum and natural gas producer in China.

Henan has 197 families and 3,830 species of higher plants, and 418 kinds of animals. It's an important producer of the country's wheat, corn, cotton, tobacco leaves and oil plants.

A total of 32 nature reserves have been established in the province, covering a total area of 748,400 hectares.

Tourism resources: As one of the major birthplaces of the Chinese civilization, Henan has several epoch-making archeological discoveries, including the Peiligang Culture Site dating back 7,000 years, Yanshao Culture Site of some 6,000 years ago, and Dahe Culture Site of more than 5,000 years ago. In ancient China, more than 20 dynasties established their capitals in Henan. Three of China's seven great ancient capitals are located in Henan: Anyang of the Shang Dynasty, Luoyang of nine dynasties and Kaifeng of seven dynasties. Three of ancient China's four great inventions, the compass, paper-making and gunpowder, were made in Henan. The province numbers first in the whole country in terms of underground cultural relics, and the second in existing cultural relics on the ground. The Yellow River, with numerous ancient relics and scenic attractions, also provides a rich tourist resource to Henan.