> Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region

Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region

Population: 2,740,000

GDP (PPP): CNY34.22 billion (2007)

Nationalities:Tibetan (92.8%), Han (6.1%), Monpa (0.3%), Hui (0.3%), and others (0.2%)

Local Weather:Click for Lhasa, Tibet Forecast

Area: 1,228,400 km2

Altitude: over 4,000 meters on the whole; 8,848 meters at the peak of Qomolangma (Mount Everest).

Climatic features: highland climate, with lower temperatures and less precipitation than most of China; thin atmosphere; long hours of sunshine; intense solar radiation.

Average temperature: -18oC to 3.6oC in January, 7oC to 19oC in July.

Annual average rainfall: 60 -1,000 mm; high precipitation in the east and south and low in the north; 90 percent of the rain falls from June to September.

Physical features: almost the whole region is a plateau, known as the roof of the world; a small area in the southeast descends to the Brahmaputra River Valley; north of the Gangdise Range and south of the Kunlun Range is the vast Northern Tibet Plateau with hills, basins, lakes, and snow-covered peaks: the southern valleys between the Gangdise and the Himalayas are Tibet's principal farming and pastoral lands; in the east is a region of parallel mountains and valleys, which are the northern half of the Hengduan Mountains.

Mountains: the Himalayas in southern Tibet have an average elevation of 6 ,000 meters; in the north are the Kunlun and Tanggula Ranges; in the central southwest lies the Gangdise Range, the Hengduan Mountains are to the immediate east of the Nyainqentanglha Range.

Rivers: the Yarlung Zangbo River, which is the upper reach of the Brahmaputra River, winds its way through Tibet's southern valleys; the Nujiang, Lancang, and Jinsha Rivers, which are respectively the upper reaches of the Salween, Mekong, and Yangtze Rivers, cut through the Hengduan Mountains and enter Yunnan Province.

Lakes: Tibet has over 1,000 lakes, with the Nam Co (1,920 square kilometers) being the second largest salt lake in China; other major lakes are the Siling Co, Gyaring Co, Ngangze Co, Tangra Yumco, and Yamzho Yumco.

Products: wheat, highland barley, buckwheat, iron, coal, chromite, copper, borax, salt; medical herbs.

Administrative divisions: 2 cities and 76 counties

Capital: Lhasa

Neighboring areas: Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan Provinces; Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

Neighboring countries: India, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Burma.

Major towns: Lhasa, XigaZe, Gyangze, Qamdo, Nyingchi, Gar, Nyalam.

Tourist attraction: Potala Palace in Lhasa

Elevation extremes: Tibet, averaging more than 4,000 meters above sea level, forms the main part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and is well known as the "roof of the world." The Himalayas, ranging from east to west on the southern edge of the Tibet Plateau, run for 2,400 km with an elevation of more than 6,000 meters. Mount Qomolangma is the world's highest peak with an elevation of 8848.13 meters. The Yarlungzangbo Gorge, at a depth of 5,382 meters, is the world's deepest gorge.

Minerals: There are more than 90 known mineral types in Tibet, reserves of 26 of which have been proved while 11 of them rank among the top five in the quantity of reserves in China. The minerals include chromite, lithium, copper, gypsum, boron, magnesite, barite, arsenic, mica, peat, kaolin, salt, natural soda, mirabilite, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, diatomaceous earth, iceland spar, corundum, rock quartz and agate.

Energy: Tibet is rich in water, geothermal, solar and wind energy. It produces approximately 200 million kw of natural hydro-energy annually, about 30% of the nation's total. It has 354.8 billion cubic meters of surface water resources, 13.5% of the nation's total; and 330 billion cubic meters of glacial water resources. Tibet has about 56. 59 million kw exploitable hydro-energy resources, 15% of the nation's total. Tibet also leads China in geothermal energy. The Yangbajain geothermal field in Damxung County, Lhasa, is China's largest high temperature steam geothermal field, and also one of the largest geothermal fields in the world.


Tibet is like a giant plant kingdom, with more than 5,000 species of high-grade plants. It is also one of China's largest forest areas, preserving intact primeval forests. Almost all the main plant species from the tropical to the frigid zones of the northern hemisphere are found here. Forestry reserves exceed 2.08 billion cubic meters and the forest coverage rate is 9.84%. Common species include Himalayan pine, alpine larch, Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus armandis, Himalayan spruce, Himalayan fir, hard-stemmed long bract fir, hemlock, Monterey Larix potaniniis, Tibetan larch, Tibetan cypress and Chinese juniper. There are about 926,000 hectares of pine forest in Tibet. Two species, Tibetan longleaf pine and Tibetan lacebark pine, are included in the listing of tree species under state protection. There are more than 1,000 wild plants used for medicine, 400 of which are medicinal herbs most often used. Particularly well known medicine plants include Chinese caterpillar fungus, Fritillaria Thunbergii, Rhizoma Picrorhizae, rhubarb, Rhizoma Gastrodiae, pseudo-ginseng, Codonopsis Pilosula, Radix Gentiane Macrophyllae, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, glossy ganoderma, and Caulis Spatholobi. In addition, there are over 200 known species of fungi, including famous edible fungi songrong, hedgehog hydnum, zhangzi fungus, mush rooms, black fungi, tremellas and yellow fungi. Fungi for medical use include tuckahoes, songganlan, stone-like omphalias.

Animals: There are 142 species of mammals in Tibet, 473 species of birds, 49 species of reptiles, 44 species of amphibians, 64 species of fish and more than 2,300 species of insects. Wild animals include Cercopithecus, Assamese macaque, rhesus monkey, muntjak, head-haired deer, wild cattle, red-spotted antelopes, serows, leopards, clouded leopards, black bears, wild cats, weasels, little pandas, red deer, river deer, whitelipped deer, wild yaks, Tibetan antelopes, wild donkeys, argalis, Mongolian gazelles, foxes, wolves, Iynxes, brown bears, jackals, blue sheep, and snow leopards. The Tibetan antelope, wild yak, wild donkey and argali are all rare species particular to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and are under state protection. The white-lipped deer, found only in China, is of particular rarity. The black-necked crane and the Tibetan pheasant are under first-grade state protection.

Tourism resources:

Tibet has continually developed and exploited its unique tourism resources, both human and natural. The region currently has four tourist areas of Lhasa, the west, southwest and south.

The Lhasa tourist area includes Lhasa, Yangbajain, Damxung, Gyangze, Zetang, Xigaze and Yamzhoyum Co Lake. Lhasa itself is not only Tibet's political, economic, cultural and transportation center, but also the center of Tibetan Buddhism. Major tourist sites include the Jokhang Temple, Ramoche Temple, Potala Palace, Barkhor Bazaar, Norbulingka Palace and three great monasteries of Ganden, Drepung and Sera. The Jokhang Temple, the Potala and Norbulingka palaces and Ganden, Drepung and Sera monasteries are key cultural relics under state-level protection.

Western Tibet is Ngari Prefecture, the so-called "rooftop atop the world's rooftop". The area draws visitors because of its great religious significance. Many tourists and pilgrims from Nepal and India come into Tibet through the Burang port of entry to visit the area's sacred mountains and lakes.

The southwest Tibet tourist district is a place for mountaineers, many of whom are Nepalese who come to Tibet through the Zhamu entry/exit port to enjoy the mountain scenery or do some climbing.

In southern Tibet, centered around Nyingchi, one can pass through the four seasons of the year in a single day. There are snow-capped mountains, dense primeval forests, surging rivers and azalea-covered mountainsides. This beautiful scenery is easy to enjoy given the pleasantly humid and mild climate.

New tourist routes and specialty tours have been added in recent years. New routes are Lhasa-Nyingschi-Shannan-Lhasa (eastern circle line) and Lhasa-Xigaze-Ngari-Xigaze (western circle line). Specialty tours include exploration by automobile, trekking and scientific investigation tours. Other special events include the Shoton Theatrical Festival in Lhasa, the Qangtam Horseracing Festival in the North Tibet Plateau and the Yarl